CONTENTS
ix
EFFECTS OF INOTROPY ON STROKE VOLUME.
...............................................
80
Effects of Inotropy on Length-Tension Relationship.
...................................
80
Effects of Inotropy on Force-Velocity Relationship.
....................................
81
Effects of Inotropy on Frank-Starling Curves.
................................................
81
Effects of Inotropy on Pressure-Volume Loops.
...........................................
81
Factors Influencing Inotropic State.
..................................................................
82
Cellular Mechanisms of Inotropy.
.......................................................................
82
INTERDEPENDENCE OF PRELOAD, AFTERLOAD, AND INOTROPY.
..........
83
MYOCARDIAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION.
............................................................
84
How Myocardial Oxygen Consumption is D eterm ined.
...............................
85
Factors Influencing Myocardial Oxygen C onsum ption.
...............................
86
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS.
..............................................................
87
REVIEW QUESTIONS.
.................................................................................................
88
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS.
....................................................................
89
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS AND CASES.
..............................................................
91
SUGGESTED RESOURCES.
........................................................................................
92
5
Vascular Function.
......................................................................................
93
INTRODUCTION.
...........................................................................................................
93
ANATOMY AND FUNCTION.
.....................................................................................
93
Vascular N etw ork.
...................................................................................................
93
Distribution of Pressures and Volum es.
............................................................
95
ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE.
...............................................................................
97
Mean Arterial Pressure.
..........................................................................................
97
A ortic Pulse Pressure.
............................................................................................
98
HEMODYNAMICS (PRESSURE, FLOW, AND RESISTANCE).
...........................
100
Effects of Vessel Length, Radius, and Blood Viscosity on
Resistance to Blood Flow .
................................................................................
100
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow .
..........................................................................
102
Series and Parallel Arrangem ent of the Vasculature.
...................................
103
REGULATION OF SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE.
..................................
106
Calculation of Systemic Vascular Resistance.
................................................
106
Vascular Tone.
..........................................................................................................
107
VENOUS BLOOD PRESSURE.
...................................................................................
107
Venous Blood Volume and C om pliance.
..........................................................
107
Mechanical Factors Affecting Central Venous Pressure and
Venous Return.
.....................................................................................................
109
Summary of Factors Affecting Central Venous Pressure.
..........................
112
VENOUS RETURN AND CARDIAC OUTPUT.
.......................................................
113
The Balance between Venous Return and Cardiac O u tp u t.
.......................
113
Systemic Vascular Function Curves.
.................................................................
113
Cardiac Function Curves.
......................................................................................
116
Interactions between Cardiac and Systemic Vascular
Function Curves.
.................................................................................................
116
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS.
..............................................................
118
REVIEW QUESTIONS.
.................................................................................................
119
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS.
....................................................................
121
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS AND CASES.
..............................................................
122
SUGGESTED RESOURCES.
........................................................................................
123
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