8
CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY CONCEPTS
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.
The correct answer is “a” because blood
flow carries heat from the deep organs
within the body to the skin where the
heat energy can be given off to the
environment. Choice “b” is incorrect
because the pulmonary and systemic
circulations are in series. Choice “c”
is incorrect because carbon dioxide
is transported from the tissues to the
lungs. Choice “d” is incorrect because
blood transports oxygen from the lungs
to the tissues.
2.
The correct answer is “a” because when
the volume per beat (stroke volume) is
multiplied by the number of beats per
minute (heart rate), the units become
volume per minute, which is the flow
out of the heart (cardiac output). Choice
“b” is incorrect because the right and
left ventricles are in series. Choice “c”
is incorrect because the left ventricle
generates much higher pressures than
the right ventricle during contraction.
Choice “d” is incorrect because the pul-
monary veins empty into the left atrium.
3.
The correct answer is “d” because when
a person stands up, blood pools in the
legs, which reduces the filling of the
heart and leads to a fall in cardiac out-
put and arterial pressure, and a decrease
in brain blood flow. Choice “a” is incor-
rect because activation of baroreceptor
negative feedback mechanisms ordinar-
ily helps to maintain arterial pressure
when standing. Choice “b” is incorrect
because increased fluid retention by
the kidneys elevates cardiac output and
arterial pressure. Choice “c” is incor-
rect because increased heart rate when
standing, which is brought about by the
baroreceptor reflex, helps to maintain
cardiac output and arterial pressure.
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