236
INDEX
B
Bainbridge reflex, 133
Baroreceptor feedback regulation, 130-134,
131, 132, 133
Baroreceptor reflexes, 129, 207
Baroreceptors,
6
, 142
arterial baroreceptors, 130-131,
131,
142-143, 201
feedback regulation, 130-134,
131, 132, 133
hypotension, 207-208,
208
Basal flow, 148-149
Basilar artery, 161,
162
Beta-adrenoceptor agonists, 82, 212
Beta-blockers, 216, 222
Bezod-Jarisch reflex, 135
Blood flow, 2 (see
also
Cardiac output; Organ blood flow)
hemodynamics, 100-105,
102-105
local regulation, 149, 151, 163
resistance, 100-105
Blood loss, cardiac function and, 207-210,
208, 209
Blood pressure
arterial, 97-100, 118
diastolic pressure, 97
distribution in vascular system, 95-97,
96
hypotension,
1 1 0
mean arterial pressure (MAP), 96, 97-98,
98,
118,
162-163, 199, 199t, 212
sphygmomanometer, 97, 98
systolic pressure, 97
venous, 113-118
Blood pressure cuff, 97
Blood vessels (see
also
entries under Vascular)
anatomy, 93-95,
94,
94t
arterial blood pressure, 97-100
function, 5
hemodynamics, 100-105,
102-105
pressure and volume, 95-97,
96
radius, 100-102,
102,
105
structure, 49-55,
50-53
systemic vascular function curves, 113-116,
114-115
types,
94
vascular tone, 107,
107
venous compliance, 75, 108
venous return and cardiac output, 113-118
Blood viscosity, 95, 100-102
Blood volume, 96,
96,
107-109
central venous pressure and, 107-109, 108
gravity,
109,
109-110
neurohumoral activation and, 142t
BNP (brain-type natriuretic peptide), 140
Bowditch effect, 82
Bowman’s capsule,
171
Bradycardia, 20, 24, 207
causes, 28, 29, 126
sinus bradycardia, 28
Bradykinin, 150, 151, 176
Brain
arteries, 161-162,
162
blood flow, 149t, 157, 161-164,
162-164,
175t, 176
edema, 193
intracranial pressure, 162,
162
mean arterial pressure, 162-163
Brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), 140
Bulk flow, 182, 194
Bundle branch blocks, 24, 27
Bundle branches,
22,
23
Bundle of His, 22, 23, 29
C
“c-wave”, 65
Cadiopulmonary receptors, 133
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), 164
Calcium
binding to TN-C, 47-48
cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and, 43-45,
44, 45,
45t
cardiac ion channels and currents, 14t
entry into myocytes, 46,
46
regulation of relaxation and, 48-49, 55
release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, 46-47,
47
“trigger” calcium, 44
uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum, 48
Calcium channel blockers, 17, 19, 20, 216
Calcium channels, 15-18
Calcium-release channels, 44
Calmodulin, 52
cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), 46, 52, 55, 212, 222
Capillaries, 93, 94t, 95
edema, 193, 193t
mean blood pressure in, 96
physical structure, 182
renal, 171-172
transcapillary fluid exchange, 186-192,
187-190, 192,
194
Capillary filtration coefficient (CFC), 188
Capillary fluid exchange model, 192,
192
Capillary hydrostatic pressure, 189-190, 194
Capillary plasma oncotic pressure, 190-191
Capillary recruitment, 165
Carbon dioxide
blood flow regulation and, 151
cerebral blood flow and, 163
removal from tissues, 186
Cardiac cycle, 62-67,
63, 67, 68,
87
altered pressure and volume changes during, 67
cardiac output, 67-83,
70-76, 78-82, 84
diagram, 62,
63
intracardiac pressures, 66-67,
67
phases, 18-19, 62-66
ventricular pressure-volume relationship, 67,
69
Cardiac function, 60-87
autonomic neural control, 124-135, 141-143
humoral control, 135-141
regulation, 5-6, 124-143
Cardiac function curves, 114, 116-118,
116-118
Cardiac glycosides, 48
Cardiac index,
68
Cardiac ischemia, ECG and, 35
Cardiac myocytes (
see
Myocytes)
Cardiac output, 87, 119
central venous pressure and, 98
distribution, 148-149, 149t
equation, 67
exercise and, 199, 199t
heart rate, 67, 69
measurement, 69
neurohumoral activation and, 142t
pregnancy and, 205,
205,
206
regulation, 69-84,
70-76, 78-82 , 84
to skeletal muscle, 165
units,
6 8
venous return and, 113
Cardiogenic shock, 210, 212
Cardiomyopathy, 216
Cardiopulmonary receptors, 133
Cardiovascular disease (
see also
Coronary artery disease;
Hypertension; Hypotension)
angina pectoris, 161
arrhythmia, 25, 28, 216, 229
coronary artery disease, 87, 161
heart failure, 49, 133, 207, 216-217,
217-218,
219-222,
220,
221t, 229
stenosis, 76, 105, 161
systolic failure, 82
valve disease, 65, 84
Cardiovascular function
exercise and, 198-205, 199t,
200, 201,
202t, 229
hypertension, 138, 212-216, 213t, 229
hypotension, 110,
206,
206-212,
208-209, 211,
229
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