INDEX
237
pain and, 135
pregnancy and,
205,
205-206, 229
regulation, 5-6, 36
Cardiovascular system (see Blood vessels; Cardiac cycle;
Cardiovascular disease; Cardiovascular function;
Heart; Myocytes; Vascular system)
Carotid arteries, 130,
131
,
161,
162
Carotid bodies, 134
Carotid sinus baroreceptors, 130,
131,
142
Carotid sinus massage, 132
Carvedilol, 222
Catecholamines, 23,
136,
136-137
Caveolae, 50,
51
Cell membrane, concentration gradients across,
10,
10-11, 36
Cell membrane potentials, 36
action potentials,
16—18,
16-21,
20-21,
20t, 36
ion channels, 14-16, 14t,
15
ionic gradients, 12-14,
13
resting membrane potentials,
10,
10-12, 36
Central chemoreceptors, 134
Central command, 201
Central nervous system, 125,
125, 126
(
see also
Neurohumoral
control)
Central venous pressure, 107-113,
108-112,
199t
Cerebral blood flow, 149t, 157, 161-164,
162-164,
175t, 176
Cerebral edema, 193
Cerebral hypoxia, 211
Cerebral ischemia, 135, 211
CFC (capillary filtration coefficient), 188
cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate), 53
CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide), 164
Chemical gradient, 10
Chemoreceptors, 134, 143
Chest leads (ECG), 34-35, 35, 36
CHF (congestive heart failure), 221, 221t
Chordae tendineae, 61,
61
Chronic heart failure, 219, 222
Chronotropy, 19, 62, 125,
126,
128t
Circle of Willis, 161,
162
Circulating catecholamines,
136,
136-137
Circulatory system (
see
Cardiovascular system; Microcirculation)
Circumflex artery, 157,
158
Cluster headaches, 164
Cold-induced vasodilation, 169
Cold pressor response, 135
Collateralization, 161
Colloid osmotic pressure, 191
Compensatory mechanisms
heart failure, 219-221,
220,
229
hypotension, 207-210
Compliance
aortic, 94
defined, 98
venous, 75, 108,
108,
109
ventricular, 69-71,
70
Compliance curves, veins, 108, 108
Concentration gradient, 181
Conduction, abnormal, 24
Conduction system, within the heart,
21-22,
21-23
Conduction velocity, regulation, 23-24, 23t
Congestive heart failure (CHF), 221, 221t
Continuous capillaries, 182
Contractility (see Inotropy)
Contraction
excitation-contraction coupling, 43-45,
44-45,
45t
isovolumetric, 64-65
regulation, 5,
45-47,
45-48, 56
vascular smooth muscle, 51-54,
52-53,
56
Coronary arteries, 157,
157,
158
Coronary artery disease, 87, 161
Coronary blood flow, 1-5,
2, 3,
149t, 157-161,
158-160,
175t, 176, 202
Coronary ostia, 157
Coronary sinus, 158
Coronary veins, 158
Corticosteroids, 193
Cranial nerve IX, 130,
131
Cranial nerve X, 130,
131
Critical stenosis, 105
Cushing reflex, 135
Cushing’s syndrome, 215
Cutaneous blood flow, 149t,
168,
168-169, 175t, 202
Cutaneous vasodilation, 202
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 46, 52, 55, 212, 222
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), 53
Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, 173
D
Decompensatory mechanisms, hypotension, 210-212
Delayed afterdepolarization, 21,
21
Dense bands, 50,
51
Dense bodies, 50,
51
Depolarization, 17, 29
Diabetes, kidneys and, 213
Diabetic nephropathy, 214
Diaphoresis, 135
Diastole, 62, 65, 158, 159
Diastolic failure, 217,
218,
219
Diastolic murmur, 223
Diastolic pressure, 97, 212
Diffusion, 181, 194
Diffusion constant, 181
Digoxin, 82, 222
Diltiazem, 17
Discontinuous capillaries, 182
Diuretics, 222
Dobutamine, 82, 212, 222
Dopamine, 82, 212
Dorsal vagal nucleus (DVN), 125
Double product, 85
dP/dt max, 64
Driving pressure, 187
Dromotropy, 62
autonomic nervous system, 125,
126,
128t
Dynamic exercise, 203, 229
Dyspnea, exertional, 216
E
Early afterdepolarization, 21,
21
ECG (see Electrocardiogram)
Ectopic foci, 18
Edema, 193, 193t
EDHF (endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor), 152
EDPVR (end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship), 67
EDV (end-diastolic volume), 64, 70-71, 87
Effective refractory period (ERP), 17
Efferent arteriole, 171,
171, 172
Efferent parasympathetic fibers, 126
Efferent vagal fibers, 125
Eicosanoids, 151
Einthoven triangle, 33,
33
Ejection fraction,
6 6
, 81, 87
Ejection murmurs, 65
Electrical activity of the heart, 9-36 (see
also
Electrocardiogram)
abnormal, 24
action potentials,
16-18,
16-21,
20-21,
20t, 36
cell membrane potentials, 36
conduction,
21-22,
21-23
conduction velocity, 23-24, 23t
ion channels, 14-16, 14t,
15
ionic gradients, 12-14,
13
reentry, 24-25,
24-25
resting membrane potentials,
10,
10-12, 36
Electrical defibrillation, 29
Electrical vectors,
29,
30-32,
31
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