238
INDEX
Electrocardiogram (ECG), 26-35
interpretation, 28-32,
28, 30, 31
leads, placing, 32-35,
32—35
myocardial ischemia and infarction, 35
tracing details,
26,
26-27, 27t
Electrolytes, 2
End-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR), 67
End-diastolic volume (EDV), 64, 70-71, 87
End-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR), 67
End-systolic volume (ESV), 65
Endocrine hormones, 150
Endothelial cells,
54,
54-55, 58
Endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), 152
Endothelial factors, organ blood flow and,
152,
152-153, 176
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), 54, 55, 153, 176
Epinephrine, 83, 84, 130,
136,
136-137, 200
Equilibrium potentials,
10,
10-11
ERP (effective refractory period),
17,
17-18
ESPVR (end-systolic pressure-volume relationship), 67
Essential (primary) hypertension, 213-214, 213t, 215
ESV (end-systolic volume), 65
ET-1 (endothelin-1), 54, 55, 153, 176
Exchange of gases, 1-2
Excitation-contraction coupling, 43-45,
44-45,
45t
Excitatory interneurons, 125
Exercise
cardiovascular response to, 198-205, 199t,
200,
201,
202t, 229
exertional dyspnea, 216
heart failure, limitations on,
2 2 1
-
2 2 2
,
2 2 1
t
Exercise hyperemia, 156
Exertional dyspnea, 216
External carotid artery,
131
Extravascular compression, organ blood flow and, 153-154
F
“Fast response” action potentials, 17
Fast sodium channels, 15,
15,
16, 23-24
Fenestrated capillaries, 182
Fick principle, 85,
8 8
Fick’s first law, 181, 183
Fight-or-fight response, 129
Filtration, 188, 194
Filtration constant, 188
First-degree AV nodal block, 28,
28
First heart sound, 64
Flow-dependent vasodilation, 152
Fluid exchange, transcapillary, 186-192,
187-190, 192,
194
Fluid filtration, 2, 186,
187
Fluid flux, 187
Fluid reabsorption, 186,
187,
194
Force-velocity relationship, 77-78,
78-79,
81,
81
Fourth heart sound, 64
Frank, Otto, 74
Frank-Starling curves, 74-75,
74,
217
afterload, 79,
79
inotropy, 81,
81
systolic failure and, 217
Frank-Starling mechanism, 74-75,
74-75,
83, 87, 110-113, 199
Functional hyperemia, 156, 162
Functional sympatholysis, 160
“Funny” (pacemaker) currents, 19
G
Gap junctions,
21,
22, 41, 51
Gas exchange
diffusion, 181, 194
pulmonary circulation, 175
Gastrointestinal system, blood flow, 149t, 169-170, 175t, 176
Gender, exercise and, 205
Gi-protein (inhibitory G-protein), 20, 46
Glomerular capillaries, 171,
171
Glomerulonephritis, 214
Glossopharyngeal nerve, 130,
131,
134
Glucocorticoids, 215
Gq-proteins, 47
Gravity, central venous pressure and,
109,
109-110
Gs-protein (stimulatory G-protein), 46, 52
Guanylyl cyclase,
53,
53-54, 58
H
h-gate, 15,
15,
16
Heart, 2, 3, 4-5
(
see also
Electrical activity of the heart;
entries
under
Cardiac; Myocytes)
anatomy, 2-3, 60-61,
61,
157-158,
158
autonomic neural control, 124-135, 141-143
blood flow, 2-5,
4,
149t, 157-161,
158-160,
175t, 176, 202
cell structure, 41-49, 57
conduction system,
21-22,
21-23
excitation-contraction coupling, 43-45,
44-45,
45t
hormone synthesis by, 5
humoral control, 135-141
intracardiac pressures, 66-67,
67
myocardial oxygen consumption, 84-87,
8 8
pumping action, 4-5
regulation of contraction, 5,
45-47,
45-48
regulation of relaxation, 48-49
ventricular pressure-volume relationship, 67,
68
Heart disease (
see
Cardiovascular disease; Coronary artery
disease)
Heart failure, 49, 133, 207, 216-217,
217-218,
219-222,
220,
221t, 229
brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for, 140
causes, 216-217
chronic, 219, 222
compensatory mechanisms, 219-221,
220,
229
congestive heart failure (CHF), 221, 221t
diastolic failure, 217,
218,
219
exercise limitations and,
2 2 1 - 2 2 2
neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors, 140
systolic failure, 217
systolic vs. diastolic dysfunction, 217,
218,
219
treatment,
2 2 2
vasopressin and, 141
Heart rate, 4, 5, 75
cardiac output, 67, 69
stroke volume and, 69
units,
6 8
Heart sounds, 63, 64-66, 87
Heat exhaustion, 204
Heat stroke, 203
Hematocrit, 101
Hemodynamics, 100-105,
102-105
Hemorrhage, cardiac function and, 207-210,
208, 209
Hemorrhagic hypotension, 207-210,
208, 209
Hemorrhagic shock, 131, 210
Hepatic artery, 170
Hepatic circulation, 3,
3
Hepatic portal vein, 170
Histamine, 150, 152, 176
Hormones
arterial pressure and,
6
sympathetic stimulation by, 199
synthesis by heart, 5
Humoral control, 135-141
atrial natriuretic peptide, 5, 139-140
circulating catecholamines,
136,
136-137
hypotension, 207-208,
208
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, 137-139,
138,
143, 208
vasopressin, 133,
140,
140-141, 142t, 143
Hydraulic conductivity, 187
Hydrogen ion, blood flow regulation and, 151
Hydrostatic pressure, 190
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