INDEX
239
Hyperaldosteronism, primary, 139, 214
Hypercapnia, 134
Hyperemia, organ blood flow,
156,
156-157,
157,
162, 166,
167
Hyperkalemia, 20
Hyperpolarization, 12, 18
Hypertension, 212-216, 229
causes, 212-213, 213t
essential (primary), 213-214, 213t, 215
hyperthyroidism and, 215
kidneys and, 212, 213
preeclampsia, 215
secondary, 213t, 214-215
treatment, 215-216
Hyperthyroidism, 20, 215
Hyperventilation, 175
Hypotension, 110,
206,
206-212,
208-209, 211,
229
causes,
206,
206-207
compensatory mechanisms during, 207-210
decompensatory mechanisms,
2 1 0
-
2 1 2
,
211
hemorrhagic, 207-210,
208, 209
treatment,
2 1 2
Hypothalamus, 142, 202
Hypothyroidism, 20, 215
Hypoxemia, 134, 163
Hypoxia, 175, 211
Hypoxic vasoconstriction, 175
I
If (pacemaker current), 19
Inactivation gate, 15
Incisura, 65
Inferior vena cava, 61, 95
Inflow resistance, 76
Inhibitory G-protein (Gi-protein), 20, 46
Initial repolarization, 17
Inorganic phosphate, blood flow regulation and, 150-151
Inositol triphosphate (IP
3
), 47
Inotropic drugs, 222
Inotropy, 62, 76,
126,
128, 128t
antonomic nervous system and,
126,
128t
defined, 80
factors influencing,
82,
82
force-velocity relationship, 81,
81
Frank-Starling curves, 81,
81
mechanisms, 82-83
negative inotropy, 62
pressure-volume loops, 81-82,
82
regulation,
45-47,
45-48, 57
stroke volume, 80
Instantaneous mean vector, 30
Intercalated disks, 22, 41
Interlobar arteries, 171
Interlobular artery, 171,
171
Internal carotid artery
131
Interstitial hydrostatic pressure, 190
Interstitial oncotic pressure, 191
Intestinal blood flow, 149t, 170, 175t
Intima,
49,
50
Intracardiac shunts, 65
Intracranial pressure, 162,
162
Intrapleural pressure, 111, 174-175
Ion channels, 14-16, 14t,
15
Ionic conductance, 11-12
Ionic gradients, 12-14,
13
Ionic pumps,
13,
13-14
IP
3
(inositol triphosphate), 47
IP
3
pathways,
53,
53-54
Ischemia, 34-35, 211
Ischemic brain reflex, 135
Isoelectric period, 26
Isoelectric voltage, 30
Isometric contraction, 77,
78
Isoproterenol, 82
Isotonic contraction, 77,
79
Isovolumetric contraction, 64-65
Isovolumetric relaxation, 65-66
J
Jugular pulse, 63,
6 6
Juxtaglomerular cells, 137
Juxtamedullary nephrons, 172
K
K+, concentration gradient across cell membrane,
10,
10-11, 35
K+ channels, 17
KACh channel,
2 0
Kallikrein, 151
Kidneys
blood flow, 149t, 170-173,
171, 172,
175t, 202
disease, 214
humoral mechanisms acting on, 5
hypertension and, 212, 213
interdependence of circulatory and organ function, 5
pressure natriuresis,
2 1 2
Kininogen, 151
L
L-type calcium channels, 17-21, 44, 46, 51, 52, 57
Large arteries, 94,
94,
94t, 119
Leads (ECG), placing, 32-35, 32-35
Left atrium,
2,
3,
4,
61,
61
Left axis deviation, 34
Left ventricle (LV),
2,
3, 4,
4,
61,
61
Length-dependent activation, 74
Length-independent activation, 80, 82
Length-tension relationship,
71-73,
71-74, 80,
80
Leukotrienes, 152
Limb leads (ECG),
32-34,
32-34, 36
Liver, blood circulation, 3,
3,
170
Local axon reflexes, 169
Lungs
blood flow, 173-175, 175t
edema, 193
Lusitropy, regulation, 48-49, 58
Lymphatic vessels, 3, 186-187,
187,
194
M
m-gate,
15,
15-16
Mean aortic pressure, 97
Mean arterial pressure (MAP), 96, 97-98,
98,
118, 162-163,
199, 199t, 212
Mean circulatory filling pressure, 114
Mean electrical axis,
29-30,
29-31
Mean electrical vectors,
29,
30
Mean pulmonary artery pressure, 174
Medulla oblongata, 125,
125,
127
Membrane potentials,
10,
10-12
Metabolic acidosis, 211
Metabolic theory of blood flow regulation, 150
Metabolism, myocyte, 49
Metanephrine, 215
Microcirculation, 180
active transport, 182
bulk flow, 182, 194
diffusion, 181, 194
edema, 193, 193t, 194
exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, 182-186,
183-185
filtration, 188, 194
transcapillary fluid exchange, 186-192,
187-190, 192,
194
vesicular transport, 182
previous page 252 Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts  2nd Edition read online next page 254 Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts  2nd Edition read online Home Toggle text on/off