240
INDEX
Migraine headaches, 164
Milrinone, 82, 212, 222
Mitral stenosis, 225
Mitral valve, 61,
61
Mitral valve regurgitation, 227-228,
228
Muscarinic receptors, 19, 46, 126, 129,
129
Muscle and joint stretch receptors, 135
Muscles, skeletal muscle circulation, 149t, 164-168,
167,
175t, 176
Myocardial infarction, ECG and, 35
Myocardial oxygen consumption, 84-87, 160
determining, 85
factors influencing, 86-87,
8 6
t
Fick principle, 85
Myocarditis, 217
Myocytes
calcium entry into, 46,
46
excitation-contraction coupling, 43-45,
44-45,
45t
length-tension relationship,
71-73,
71-74, 80,
80
metabolism, 49
regulation of calcium efflux by, 48
regulation of contraction,
45-47,
45-48
regulation of relaxation, 48-49
resting membrane potentials (Em),
10,
10-12, 35
structure, 41-43,
42-43,
55
Myofilaments, 42,
43
Myogenic mechanisms, for organ blood flow regulation,
51-52, 153
Myosin, 42
Myosin ATPase (myosin adenosine triphosphatase), 43
Myosin light chain kinase, 52
Myosin light chains, 48, 52
N
Na+, concentration gradient across cell membrane,
10,
10-11, 35
Na+ channels, 17
Na+/K+-ATPase, 13
NDF (Net driving force),
188,
188-189,
189,
191-192, 194
Negative chronotropy, 19, 62
Negative dromotropy, 62
Negative feedback,
6
Negative inotropy, 62
NEP inhibitors (neutral endopeptidase inhibitors), 140
Nernst potential, 11
Nerve of Hering, 130
Nerves, autonomic, 61-62
Net driving force (NDF),
188,
188-189,
189,
191-192, 194
Net electrochemical force, 11
Net oncotic pressure, 189
Neurohumoral control
autonomic control, 124-135, 141-143
humoral control, 135-141
integration of mechanisms, 141-142
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), 164
Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors, 140
Nitric oxide, 53-54,
54,
126, 151, 152, 160, 213
Nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP system, 53
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibitors, 152
Nonpacemaker action potentials,
17,
17-18, 36
Norepinephrine, 53, 129, 130, 136,
136,
137, 200
NOS inhibitors (Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors), 152
NPY (Neuropeptide-Y), 164
Nucleus ambiguous (NA), 125
Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), 125,
126
O
“Oncotic” pressure, 191
Organ
(
see also
Organ blood flow)
parallel arrangement, 104, 119
perfusion pressure, 154
vascular arrangement, 3,
3,
104-105,
105,
119
Organ blood flow, 3,
3,
148-176
autoregulation,
154,
154-155, 176
basal flow, 148-149
cardiac output, distribution of, 148-149, 149t
cerebral, 149t, 157, 161-164,
162-164,
175t, 176
coronary, 149t, 157-161,
158-160,
175t, 176, 202
cutaneous, 149t,
168,
168-169, 175t, 202
endothelial factors,
152,
152-153
gastrointestinal system, 149t, 169-170, 175t, 176
hepatic, 3,
3,
170
hyperemia,
156,
156-157,
157,
162, 166,
167
local regulation, 149-157, 176
mechanical compression and, 153-154, 176
myogenic mechanisms, 153
pancreas, 149t, 170
physical activity,
2 0 2
pulmonary, 173-175, 175t
renal, 149t, 170-173,
171, 172,
175t, 202
skeletal muscle circulation, 149t, 164-168,
167,
175t, 176
splanchnic, 169-170, 202
tissue factors and, 149-152,
150
vasodilator reserve, 149
Orthostatic hypotension, 110
Osmolarity, blood flow regulation and, 151
Osmotic pressure, 191
Overdrive suppression, 18
Oxygen
blood flow regulation and, 151
delivery and extraction, 183-186,
184, 185
diffusion, 182-183,
183
Oxygen supply/demand ratio, 160
P
P wave,
26,
27, 27t, 62
P-R interval,
26,
27t, 27
Pacemaker action potentials,
18,
18-20,
20,
36
Pacemaker current (If), 19
Pain, cardiovascular function and, 135, 136
Papillary muscles, 61
Paracrine hormones, 150, 176
Parasympathetic innervation, 20, 61-62,
125,
125-126,
126,
12 7,
128t, 142
brain, 164
heart, 160
intestine, 170
Paravertebral ganglia,
127,
128
Passive tension, 71,
71
PCO
2
, 134, 186
Peripheral baroreceptors, 142
Peripheral chemoreceptors, 134, 143
Peritubular capillaries, 171,
171
Permeability coefficient, 181
PGE
2
(Prostaglandin E
2
), 152
PGF, , 152
2
a’
PGI
2
(Prostacyclin), 53, 152, 173
pH, 134
Phase 0 depolarization, 18
Pheochromocytoma, 137, 214-215
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, 212
Phospholamban, 48, 49
Phospholipase C, 47, 52
Phosphorylation, 46
Physical activity, cardiovascular response to, 198-205, 199t,
200, 201,
202t, 229
Physical conditioning, exercise and, 204
Plasma, viscosity, 101
Plateau phase, 17
PO
2
, 134, 163, 183
Poiseuille’s equation, 101, 105, 182
Polycythemia, 101
Pores, 182, 194
Positive chronotropy, 19
Positive feedback cycle, 210
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