INDEX
241
Post-capillary resistance, 189
Post-capillary venules, 95, 96, 194
Postganglionic fibers, 125, 128
Postural hypotension, 110
Potassium, cardiac ion channels and currents, 14t
Potassium ion, blood flow regulation and, 151
Precapillary resistance, 189
Preeclampsia, 215
Preganglionic fibers, 125
Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent nerves, 142
Pregnancy
cardiovascular function and,
205,
205-206, 229
preeclampsia, 215
Preload, 47
defined, 69
left ventricular preload, 76
length-tension relationship,
71-73,
71-74
right ventricular preload, 75,
76
stroke volume, 74-75,
74-75
ventricular compliance, 69-71,
70
ventricular preload, 75-76,
76
Premature depolarization, 29
Pressure (see
also
Arterial blood pressure; Venous blood
pressure)
intracardiac pressures, 66-67,
67
perfusion pressure, 154, 175
ventricular pressure-volume relationship,
67,
68
Pressure natriuresis, 212
Pressure pulse, 97
Pressure-rate product, 85
Pressure-volume loops, 67
afterload and,
79, 80,
79-80
heart failure and, 217,
218,
219
inotropy and, 81-82,
82
Prevertebral ganglia,
127,
128
Primary (essential) hypertension, 213-214, 213t, 215
Primary hyperaldosteronism, 139, 214
Prostacyclin (PGI
2
), 53, 152, 173
Prostaglandin E
2
(PGE
2
), 152
Prostaglandins, 150, 173, 176
Protein kinase A (PK-A), 46
Proximal tubule,
171
PS product, 181
Pulmonary artery, 61, 174
Pulmonary blood flow, 173-175, 175t
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, 217
Pulmonary circulation, 2, 3, 4
Pulmonary edema, 193
Pulmonary stretch receptors, 135
Pulmonary stretch reflex, 135
Pulmonary vasoconstriction, 175
Pulmonary veins, 61
Pulmonary vessels, 174
Pulmonic regurgitation, 228
Pulmonic stenosis, 225-226
Pulmonic valve, 61,
61,
62-67
Pulse pressure, 97
Purkinje fibers, 23
Q
Q-T interval,
26,
27t, 27
QRS complex,
26,
27t, 27, 29, 30,
31,
65
R
RA (right atrium), 2,
2,
4,
4,
60-61,
61
Rate of diffusion, 181
Reactive hyperemia, organ blood flow, 156,
156
Receptor-gated channels, 15
Reentry mechanism, 24-25,
24-25
Reflection coefficient, 191
Regulation
(
see also
Neurohumoral control)
conduction velocity, 23-24, 23t
of contraction,
45-47,
45-48
Relative refractory period, 18
Relaxation, isovolumetric, 65-66
Renal artery stenosis, 173, 214, 215
Renal blood flow, 149t, 170-173,
171, 172,
175t, 202
Renal disease, 214
Renin, 137, 143
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, 137-139,
138,
143, 208, 216
Repolarization, 17, 19, 27, 32
Resistance, blood flow, 100-102,
102
Resistance vessels, 95, 96, 128, 158, 168
Respiration, venous return and, 110-112,
111
Respiratory pump (see Abdominothoracic pump)
Respiratory system, pulmonary blood flow, 173-175
Resting heart rate, 127
Resting membrane potential (Em),
10,
10-12, 36
Rhythm strip, 26, 28
Right atrium, 2,
2,
4,
4,
60-61,
61
Right axis deviation, 34
Right venticular preload, 75,
76
Right ventricle, 2,
2,
4,
4,
61,
61
Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), 127
Ryanodine receptors, 44
S
SA nodal arrest, 126
SA node (sinoatrial node), 19-20,
20,
20t, 62, 125
Sarcolemma, 44
ion channels, 14-16, 14t,
15
ion pumps and exchanges, 12-14,
13
Sarcomeres, 42,
42
length, 69, 70-71
sliding filament theory, 44,
45
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 43-44,
44,
45
Second-degree AV nodal block,
28
,
29
Second heart sound, 65, 87
Secondary hypertension, 138, 213t, 214-215
Semilunar valve, 61
Semipermeable membrane, 191
Septic shock, 206, 210
SERCA,
44,
45, 46, 48-49
Severe hypotension, 210
Shock
cardiogenic shock,
2 1 0
,
2 1 2
hemorrhagic, 131, 210
irreversible,
2 1 1 - 2 1 2
septic, 206,
2 1 0
Signal transduction, cardiac muscle, 47
Signal transduction, vascular smooth muscle contraction, 53
Sinoatrial node (SA node), 19-20,
20,
20t, 62, 125
Sinus bradycardia, 28
Sinus nerve, 130
Sinus rhythm, 28
Sinus tachycardia, 28
Sinusoids, 170
SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome), 206
Skeletal muscle circulation, 149t, 164-168,
167,
175t, 176
Skeletal muscle pump, 110,
110
Skin
blood flow, 149t,
168,
168-169, 175t, 202
vasodilation,
2 0 2
Sleep apnea, 215
Sliding filament theory, 44,
45
“Slow response” action potentials, 18
Small arteries, 94, 94t, 95
Smooth muscle cells, vascular, 51-54,
52-53,
153
Sodium, cardiac ion channels and currents, 14t
Sodium-calcium exchanger, 14
Sodium-potassium ATPase, 13
Sodium channels, 15,
15,
16, 18, 21
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