242
INDEX
Sodium current, 16
Sphygmomanometer, 97, 98
Splanchnic blood flow, 149t, 169-170, 202
Spleen, blood flow, 149t, 170
ST segment,
26,
27, 27t
Standard limb leads, 32
Starling, Ernest, 74, 189
Starling forces, 189
Starling’s law of the heart, 74
Static exercise, 203
Stenosis, 76, 105, 161
Stimulatory G-protein (Gs-protein), 46, 52
Stomach, blood flow, 149t
Stroke volume, 4
afterload and, 77
exercise and,
2 0 2
,
2 0 2
t
Frank-Starling mechanism, 74-75,
74-75,
84, 87
heart rate, 67, 69
hypotension and, 207
inotropy, 80,
80
pregnancy and,
205,
205-206
preload, 69
regulation, 69-84
units,
68
Superior vena cava, 61,
61,
95
Supraventricular tachycardia, 25
Sympathetic afferent nerve, 62
Sympathetic efferent fibers, 61
Sympathetic escape, 167
Sympathetic innervation, 20, 61-62,
127,
127-128, 136, 142,
143,160, 163-164
Sympathetic nerves, 200
Sympathetic neurons, 127
Syncytium, 41
Systemic circulation, 2, 94t,
96,
97-98
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), 206
Systemic vascular function curve, 113-116,
114, 115
Systemic vascular resistance,
6
, 118, 199t
calculation, 106
hemodynamics, 100-105,
102-105
Systole, 62, 65, 159
Systolic failure, 82, 217
Systolic murmur, 223
Systolic pressure, 97, 212
T
T tubules (transverse tubules), 43
T-type calcium channels, 19
T wave, 27t, 27, 65
Tachycardia, 20
sinus, 28
supraventricular, 25
ventricular,
28,
29
Temperature reflex, 135
Terminal cisternae, 43
Thebesian vessels, 158
Thermoreceptors, 135, 202
Thick filaments, 42, 43,
43
Thin filaments, 42, 43,
43
Third-degree AV nodal block, 29
Third heart sound,
66
Thromboxanes, 152
Tissue hydrostatic pressure, 190
Tissue oncotic pressure, 191
Titin, 42
TN-C (troponin-C), 43,
43, 46,
47-48
TN-I (troponin-I), 43,
43
TN-T (troponin-T), 43,
43
Tonic contraction, 51
Total blood volume, central venous pressure, 112
Total peripheral resistance (TPR)
(
see
Systemic vascular
resistance)
Transcapillary fluid exchange, 186-192,
187-190, 192,
194
“Transient” calcium channels, 19
Transmural pressure, 111
Transverse tubules (T tubules), 43
Tricuspid regurgitation, 228
Tricuspid valve, 61
Tricuspid valve stenosis, 76, 226
“Trigger” calcium, 44
Triple response, 169
Tropomyosin, 43
Troponin-C (TN-C), 43,
43, 46,
47-48
Troponin-I (TN-I), 43,
43
Troponin-T (TN-T), 43,
43
Troponin-tropomyosin complex, 43,
44
Tubuloglomerular feedback, 173
V
V
1
-V
6
leads, 35,
35
“v-wave”,
66
Vagal activation, 62
Vagal stimulation, 19-20,
20,
126
Vagal tone, 19, 125
Vagus nerve, 61-62, 125,
131
left vagus nerve, 62, 126
right vagus nerve, 61-62, 125-126
Valsalva maneuver, 112, 113, 203
Valve disease, 65, 84
Valve regurgitation,
226,
226-228,
228
Valve stenosis, 223-226,
224, 225
Vanillylmandelic acid, 215
Varicosities, 128
Vasa recta, 172
Vascular endothelial cells,
54,
54-55, 58
Vascular function, 5
interdependence of circulatory and organ function, 5,
104-105,
105,
118
regulation, 5-6
Vascular resistance, 4, 106, 118-119, 175
Vascular smooth muscle, 50-54,
51
cellular structure, 50-51,
51
contraction, 51-54,
52-53
Vascular structure, 49-55
adventitia, 50,
50
endothelial cells,
54,
54-55
intima, 49-50,
50
media, 50,
50
smooth muscle cells, 50-54,
51-53
Vascular system, 5, 93-119 (see
also
Blood flow; Blood vessels;
Organ blood flow)
anatomy, 2-3, 93-95,
94,
94t
arterial blood pressure, 97-100
autonomic neural control, 124-135, 141-143
cardiac function curves, 114, 116-118,
116-118
exercise and, 198-205, 199t,
200, 201,
202t, 229
function, 93
hemodynamics, 100-105,
102-105
humoral control, 135-141
lungs, 174
microcirculation, 180-182
of organs, 5, 104-105,
105,
118
pregnancy and,
205,
205-206, 229
pressures and volumes, 95-97,
96
systemic circulation, 2, 94t,
96,
97-98
systemic vascular function curve, 113-116,
114, 115
systemic vascular resistance, 106
varicosities, 128
vascular tone, 107,
107
venous blood pressure, 107-113
venous return and cardiac output, 113-118
Vascular tone, 107,
107
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 164
Vasoconstriction, 175, 176
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