CONTENTS
Preface.
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v
Acknowledgments.
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1
Introduction to the Cardiovascular System .
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1
THE NEED FOR A CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.
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1
THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
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2
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS.
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4
Heart.
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4
Vascular System.
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Interdependence of Circulatory and Organ Function.
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5
THE REGULATION OF CARDIAC AND VASCULAR FUNCTION.
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5
THE CONTENT OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS.
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6
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS.
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7
REVIEW QUESTIONS.
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7
ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS.
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8
2
Electrical Activity of the Heart.
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9
INTRODUCTION.
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10
CELL MEMBRANE POTENTIALS.
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10
Resting Membrane Potentials.
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10
Maintenance of Ionic Gradients.
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12
Ion Channels.
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14
Action Potentials.
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Arrhythmias Caused by Abnormal Action Potential Generation.
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21
CONDUCTION OF ACTION POTENTIALS WITHIN THE HEART.
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21
Electrical Conduction within the Heart.
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21
Regulation of Conduction Velocity.
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23
Abnormal Conduction.
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Tachycardia Caused by Reentry.
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THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM.
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26
ECG Tracing.
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Interpretation of Normal and Abnormal Cardiac Rhythms
from the ECG.
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28
Volume Conductor Principles and ECG Rules of Interpretation.
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30
ECG Leads: Placement of Recording Electrodes.
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32
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING CARDIAC ISCHEMIA.
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35
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS.
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REVIEW QUESTIONS.
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ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS.
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ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS AND CASES.
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SUGGESTED RESOURCES.
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